О.И. Липина

Онлайн-образование XXI века является частью науки педагогики, которая всегда отвечала на вопросы обучения и воспитания – «кого учить?», «как учить?», «чему учить?», «зачем учить?». С глубокой древности была осознана роль ответов на них. Но со времен Платона и Аристотеля пока продолжается поиск «идеальных решений», потому что педагогика, образование, воспитание, учение, обучение непосредственно как процессы постоянно меняются, так как меняется и само время, и человек. А педагогика с целым спектром ее ответвлений продолжает расширяться и развиваться.

На современном этапе в педагогике, естественно, отмечается влияние на образование цифровых технологий, появилось онлайн-образование со своими особенностями. Например, в отличие от классического образования формы онлайн-образования позволили быстро тиражировать знания, медийный формат сделал обучение ярким, дал возможность для интерактивного общения. Кроме того, сегодня онлайн используется при обучении как детей, так и взрослых. При этом каждый может получить любой по содержанию материал, в любом месте, в удобное время, асинхронно.

Учатся добровольно, учатся самостоятельно, учатся всю жизнь, а главное  – дети могут учить взрослых.

С экономической точки зрения, онлайн – образование позволяет сократить затраты на приобретение или аренду помещений, снижает транспортные расходы обучающихся.

Поскольку в онлайне учатся люди разных социальных слоев общества и институтов, возникает множество сегментов применения нового вида образования.

Кроме того, расцвет онлайн-образования связан с появлением в экономике потребности в новых кадрах, обладающих цифровыми компетенциями (например, дата-аналитики, руководители цифровой трансформации – Chief Digital Transformation Officer и др.).

Онлайн-образование стали рассматривать как часть цифровой стратегии государства, способной обеспечить улучшение качества жизни граждан и конкурентоспособность страны, когда требуется в короткие сроки подготовить к работе в условиях цифровой экономики большое число сотрудников госсектора, муниципальных служащих, представителей бюджетных организаций.

Важно, что в Указе Президента Российской Федерации №474 национальной целью РФ на период до 2030 года названа цифровая трансформация с показателями цифровой зрелости ключевых отраслей экономики и социальной сферы, включая здравоохранение, образование, транспорт, госуправление.

Подготовка кадров в данном случае приобрела важную роль, а онлайн-образование в освоении знаний трудящимся населением заняло ведущие позиции, решив вопросы с рассинхронизацией передачи информации, обеспечив быстрый обмен опытом и своевременную коммуникацию. Считаем важным отметить, что успех здесь обусловлен уже имеющимися в андрогогике (науке об образовании взрослых) требованиями и методами:

•        понимание собственных целей в любой конкретной ситуации, умение прогнозировать результат (для чего?);

•        фиксированное усвоение новой информации;

•        овладение новым методом и умением его использовать  как способ деятельности;

•        осознание источника: из какой субкультуры новая норма, возможность ее адаптации к собственной субкультуре [1].

Что касается школьного образования, призванного формировать образ жизни, принятый в обществе, осваивать различные формы жизнедеятельности (образовательной, трудовой, общественно-политической, профессиональной, культурно-досуговой, семейно-бытовой), развивать духовный потенциал человека, то при переходе в формат онлайн в период пандемии (в связи с предотвращением распространения коронавирусной инфекции COVID-19) для внедрения онлайн-образования оно продемонстрировало острую нехватку методических систем и разработанных педагогических технологий. Ученые дефицит мультимодального методического обеспечения для обучения школьников в контексте цифровизации соотнесли с вынужденным характером перехода обучения на онлайн [2].

Также кризис был зафиксирован в дошкольном и дополнительном образовании, когда в пандемию у детей не появилось онлайн-альтернативы занятиям по танцам, музыке, вокалу. Учителя и методисты оказались полностью не готовы для профессионального ведения педагогической деятельности.

Приведенные тезисы подтверждают актуальность онлайн-образования. Считаем, что его грамотная организация в различных системах образования – это важный шаг в решении вопросов качественного образования в России, повышения уровня жизни граждан и реализации задач цифровой трансформации ключевых отраслей экономики и социальной сферы.

Наиболее распространенной и эффективной формой онлайн-образования, позволяющей создать обучающую цифровую среду, по крайней мере, для взрослого слушателя, является онлайн-урок как структурная единица онлайн-курса.

Онлайн – занятие может длиться 45 минут, как и обычный урок, но при самостоятельном изучении материала, когда концентрировать  внимание без учителя, тьютера (наставника) труднее, время иногда ограничивают до 20 минут. Определяющую роль берет на себя преподаватель (спикер, лектор, автор, тьютер), его умение удерживать аудиторию в режиме онлайн.

Наш опыт профессиональной переподготовки кадров по программе «Руководитель цифровой трансформации» позволяет утверждать, что взрослый пользователь способен активно воспринимать и усваивать информацию в течение двух онлайн-занятий, каждое из которых длится 90 минут.

Многие методисты, кто сегодня создает тренды в онлайн-образовании, рекомендуют один урок разрабатывать под одно основное понятие либо действие в содержании обучения (а также это либо основное знание, либо умение, либо основной навык). При этом, на наш взгляд, целесообразно учитывать теорию поэтапного формирования умственных действий (П.Я. Гальперин, Д.Б. Эльконин, Н.Ф. Талызина и др.) с ее положением о цикле усвоения содержания обучения.

Один из этапов подразумевает проговаривание материала либо действия после демонстрации примера.

Подобная схема для формирования навыков в режиме онлайн может быть реализована с помощью вебинаров, на которых преподаватель контролирует процесс подкрепления полученной информации.

Логика структуры онлайн-курса складывается из трех частей:

  1. Введение (применяются вводные, вступительные уроки, на них слушатели (если речь идет об обучении взрослых) знакомятся с преподавателем, получают мотивацию для изучения курса, инструкции по выполнению заданий, правила прохождения курса, знакомятся друг с другом, также станет полезным проведение анкетирования пользователей с целью сбора информации о том, что ученики ожидают от курса, какой имеют опыт обучения и цифровые инструменты для изучения материалов).
  2. Основная часть (содержание уроков онлайн-курса или контент, поэтапное движение к цели курса, проявляющейся в достижении результата. Например, изучение курса «Мастер дистанционного обучения» заканчивается созданием на платформе собственных онлайн-уроков).
  3. Заключение (выполнение итоговых заданий, обычно, прохождение итогового контрольного тестирования, разработка проекта или его части, создание цифрового продукта – сайта, платформы, онлайн-марафона; на заключительных занятиях пользователь должен получить информацию о тех сферах деятельности, в которых он может реализовать полученные компетенции, иметь четкое представление о динамике роста профессиональной траектории, а также ознакомиться с курсами, развивающими полученную слушателем компетенцию, на заключительном занятии осуществляется рефлексия, сбор обратной связи (отзывов о курсе).

Педагогические концепции онлайн-образования сегодня представлены только в проектном виде, пока лишь идет разработка их основных положений. Проблемы, рассмотренные нами выше, лежат в сфере новых отраслей педагогики, находящихся на стадии своего становления. Это, к примеру, цифровая дидактика. Скорее всего, в ближайшие годы  в педагогической науке появятся еще ряд разделов, название которым на современном этапе ученые еще не придумали. Ясно, что все новации будут связаны с цифровыми технологиями, их влиянием на человека как субъекта и объекта обучения. Поэтому вопросы изучения на разных уровнях процесса цифровой трансформации имеют для российского общества, взрослого и молодого поколения, огромное значение.

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

  1. Громкова М.Т. Андрагогика: теория и практика образования взрослых: Учеб.пособие для системы доп.проф.образования; учеб.пособие для студентов вузов / М.: ЮНИТИ-ДАНА,2005. – 495 с.
  2. Радина Н.К., Балакина Ю.В. Вопросы образования. 2021. № 1. С.178-194

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